Damian covers biotech and writes The Readout newsletter. Thanks for setting my thoughts at rest. I am interested in connecting with an individual or institution which can enable to learn the basics in genealogy.
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I am planning to publish a book on the history of my Clan in Uganda and it includes family-trees going back to17th century. Duke is the anglicized version of Duque. What gets lost is that no matter how noble their newfound clan or tribe, they personally might still be descendants of, at best, the village idiots, or at worst, a long line of town thieves, rapists and murderers.
Each of our great, great, great, great, great grandmas or grandpas might be who or whatever, but we are what we have made of ourselves. That last sentence is both true and important, L Feld. Quite true,my friend.
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia
Anyone who has one of above three Northeast Asian ethnic in ancestral line, will end up somewhat related to Japanese or Korean. That is really interesting! I think we put too much emphasis on nationality- when in reality we are people of the world and people of God.
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With that in mind we can then dispel perceptions and expectations from nationality and embrace who we truly are- ever changing, ever evolving, ever growing people and if you have the heart of God nothing else really matters. I think what you wrote is beautiful and profound, diana. That was around fifteen years ago.
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To clear up possible confusion, I have an Asian surname through marriage; I did not have Asian parents. I made a mistake when I wrote that I was first tested with the National Geographic Genographic Project around fifteen years ago. It was over fifteen years ago. I found when I did a google search that their first test was released in Only to find out later they discarded the kits as junk, even though they said they wanted to be included. I believed that minorities were not sufficiently included in the database.
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Our family documents legitimize our family straight down the line. We still have deeded property in trust. All 4 companies got that right. It was her husband that was a descendant of slaves. It was a brutal time. She was a Sioux Indian. Called names until I went to college.
Pictures are not proof! Some possible family members disappeared BUT some reconnected when they found out their families true history. They need more people to register. Police Bureaus are using it to solve crimes. I now look at it as the spice to a celebratory dinner. I look forward to updates and try to connect with the distance extensions of the family.
By Megan Thielking and Nicholas Florko. By David Armstrong — ProPublica.
Ferdinand VII of Spain - Wikipedia
Between and BCE the Phoenicians built a vast commercial empire from their Levantine homeland along the southern Mediterranean as far as Andalusia. It is not easy to assess the percentage of modern Iberian lineages of Phoenician origin because many other peoples brought similar haplogroups.
And indeed all of them have been found, mostly in Portugal and south-west Andalusia, but only at trace frequencies under 0. The island of Ibiza was another major Phoenician colony, which has the particularity of having been left in isolation for most of its subsequent history. It is therefore likely to have more Phoenician lineages than average. That is probably the case as Adams et al. Like haplogroup T, E-M is mostly found in Murcia, Andalusia, Extremadura and Portugal, suggesting that this is where the Phoenicians had the largest genetic impact. Not surprisingly haplogroups J1 and J2a also peak in these regions.
The ancient Greeks had a relatively small impact on the Spanish gene pool, having only a few minor colonies in Catalonia and near Alicante. The Romans did not establish a lot of population colonies in Iberia as they did in Gaul. The genetic impact of the Romans is the most difficult to gauge as their haplogroups look essentially like a blend of Hallstatt Celts and Greeks.
The highest level in probably found along the Mediterranean coast, in western Andalusia and in Extremadura, because this is where R1b-L23, J2 and E-V13 are the highest, but also because this is where the main Roman population centres were found.
Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule, before they, together with resident Muslims, were forced to convert to Catholicism, be expelled, or be killed when Spain became united under the Catholic Monarchs King Ferdinand and Isabella in The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain started with the Umayyad conquest of Iberia in and lasted until the end of the Caliphate of Cordoba and the Almoravid invasion in the 11th century.
It is not known how many Jews converted to Catholicism to escape persecutions, but it is estimated by historians to have been very large. The Sephardic Jews that fled the Inquisition and sought refuge in other European countries or Turkey remained a disctinct ethnic group to this day, and it is therefore easy to assess their haplogroup composition. This was in fact done by Adams et al. Unfortunately this makes it almost impossible to distinguish what lineage is of Jewish or Phoenician origin in Iberia, a task made all the more difficult by the interferences from similar haplogroups brought by the Greeks and Romans J2a, R1b-L23, T or the Arabs J1, J2a, T.
The only caveat is that these figures do not take into account the genetic contribution of Neolithic herders who may have come from Southwest Asia via North Africa. Only a deeper analysis of the subclades of haplogroups J1 and T could confirm exactly the proportion of Neolithic, Phoenician, Jewish and Arabic paternal ancestry in each region of Spain and Portugal. In the 4th and 5th centuries the cooling of the climate prompted Germanic and Slavic tribes to migrate south and west and to invade the Roman Empire in search of more fertile lands.
In , the Alans who were not Germanic but of Iranic origin , the Suebi and the Vandals crossed the Rhine together, invading Gaul, then three years later, they crossed the Pyrenees into Roman Hispania. The Vandals and the Alans went south to Andalusia, then crossed over the North Africa in , where they founded a kingdom that also comprised Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The Suebi were the only of the three tribes that actually settled in Iberia.
As a Germanic tribe, they would have brought haplogroups I1 , I2a2a M, formerly known as I2b1 , R1b-U and R1a L, Z and Z subclades to the Iberian peninsula, and indeed all of them except R1a are found essentially in the western half of the Iberian, especially in Portugal and Galicia. R1a is found in northern Castile, Asturias and Cantabria, and could either have been brought there by the Visigoths, or be the descendants of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers as is the case of the Pasiegos.
The Goths , who were the first to penetrate into the Roman Empire at the beginning of the 4th century, first settling in the Balkans, and eventually split into two factions, the Ostrogoths and Visigoths. The latter, under the command of Alaric I, sacked Rome in , then went to establish a Visigothic Kingdom in south-western Gaul in Quickly expanding over all Aquitania, the Visigoths now looked to expand south, and by the middle of the 5th century they had conquered most of central and southern Iberia.
In the 's they annexed the Suebi Kingdom, as well as the land of the Cantabrians and the Basques. The Visigothic Kingdom lasted until the Muslim conquest of Iberia in The Visigothic Kingdom was the larger and longer lived than the Suebi Kingdom, and yet the Goths do not seem to have had any significant genetic impact on the Iberian population - at least not in terms of Germanic Y-DNA.
The reason might simply be that they were no longer a predominantly Germanic tribe. After all, the Goths had lived for many centuries in Eastern Europe and nearly two more centuries in the Balkans before invading Italy, Gaul and Iberia. They could have assimilated a lot of non-Germanic people on the way, notably R1a and I2a1b Slavs and predominantly E1b1b, I2a1b and J2 Balkanic people. No historical migration could account for Slavic haplogroups in Iberia apart from the East European populations assimilated by the Goths before the 4th century. That is not suprising considering that there were only 40, Suebi who settled there permanently, and they were the biggest contigent if we exclude the heavily hybridised Visigoths.
Paternal lineages of the ruling classes, however, are generally an overestimation of the true genetic conttribution, since foreign invaders turned monarchs and nobles tend to procreate more by having multiple sexual partners if not multiple wives, at least mistresses or concubines.